Purpose of this blog

Dmitry Yudo aka Overlord, jack of all trades
David Lister aka Listy, Freelancer and Volunteer

Sunday, March 18, 2018

Fire Fight

The anti-hero is a common enough tale in fiction, but even in real life they exist. Maynard Harrison Smith was born to wealthy parents in May 1911, and after his father died he lived off his inheritance. Throughout his life he had been described as troubled and difficult. He first married in 1929 and had a child. In 1932 the couple divorced. Smith remarried in 1941. In 1942 at the age of 31, he failed to pay his child support to his first wife and was taken to court. The judge gave him an option, jail or the military. Not a clear-cut choice with a country that had just become involved in the Second World War. Smith chose the military, and when a group of thirty odd recruits assembled outside the courthouse in Caro, Smith was lead to join the group while in handcuffs.

During training Smith found it hard to accept younger men telling him what to do and had a difficult time. However, he volunteered for aerial gunnery training as he saw it as the fastest route to promotion. He carried out his specialisation training in Texas, upon completion Smith was promoted to Staff Sergeant, and then transferred to the UK. Upon arriving, around mid March 1943, he was assigned to the 306th Bomb Group flying out of Turleigh Airfield. Sgt Smith was disliked and no one wanted him on his crew. This kept him out of action for six weeks. However, on the 1st of May 1943 Sgt Smith was picked to fill in a blank spot in a bomber crew. He had to man the ball turret.

The target, the U-boat pens are the large square building, just to the right of centre. Normandy dock is the angled water feature above the centre.
The mission was to hit the U-boat pens at St Nazaire. Seventy-eight B-17's were meant to go on this mission, however bad weather caused thirty-eight to abort, and another eleven turned back with mechanical problems. The remaining twenty-nine carried onto the target. Luck was on the bombers side this time as they reached their target having encountered no enemy action. They bombed and turned out to sea then flew into dense cloud. The lead navigator made a mistake with his timings, and when they emerged from the cloud bank and saw themselves over the sea, but with a landmass to their north, the navigator declared this was England. The bomber formation began to descend.

In reality this was Brittany, and the bombers were heading towards one of the more heavily defended areas, Brest. By now the Germans had gotten organised and had managed to vector about twenty fighters onto the B-17's. Suddenly the air was filled with planes and gunfire. The fighters savaged Smiths B-17, there was a loud explosion, and the intercom went dead. The pilot of Smiths aircraft ordered his bombardier to check on the rest of the crew, while he struggled to hold the B-17 steady. The Sergeant opened the door to the radio room only to find it engulfed in flames, trapping the crew in the forward section.

In the rear of the plane Sgt Smith’s turret had lost electrical power. He hand cranked it round to allow him to escape. As he emerged the radio man raced past him with a parachute, and jumped, the two waist gunners followed suit. Smith however stood his ground. He realised that the plane was holding steady in the formation, so at least someone was at the controls. Smith started to attack the fire with a handheld fire extinguisher. Then he saw the tail gunner crawl out of his burning position. As Smith rushed to him to drag him to safety he saw that the tail gunner had been hit in the back. Smith gave first aid, before returning to firefighting.
Smith manning a waits gun in a posed photograph.
Through one of the holes torn in the fuselage he saw German fighters barrelling in for another attack. Single handily Smith drove the attacking fighter away with the .50 cal guns. As he returned to fighting the fire he saw that ammunition boxes were beginning to catch alight, so he began to throw them out the large hole torn in the fuselage. Several of these exploded seconds after they cleared the aircraft.

The reason for the fire being so bad was the oxygen system had been hit and this was powering the flames. Again, Smith attacked it with the fire extinguishers, however he saw another fighter closing and raced back to the waist gun to drive it off. By now the fire extinguishers were empty, and Smith was forced to improvise using water bottles, and some accounts even say he urinated on the fire to try and keep it under control. For the next thirty minutes Smith alternated between giving first aid, fighting off German fighters and attacking the fire with his hands trying to beat the flames out.
The Damage to Smith's plane.
Eventually the fires were out, and the German fighters stopped coming. Smith worried that the plane would be melted in half by the heat so he began to throw everything he could over the side to lighten the tail section. Eventually the plane set down at Predennack in Cornwall. Some 3500 holes were counted in the fuselage. About ten minutes after setting down the plane did break in half. The three crew who jumped were lost at sea. Smith was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honour for his actions. A large ceremony was laid on, with the US Secretary of War presenting the medal. However, at the ceremony Smith was nowhere to be found, and everyone involved had to stand and wait while he was tracked down. Smith was on punishment duties, cleaning up in the kitchen after getting drunk and missing another mission. Smith was only to fly another four missions before being diagnosed with combat stress. He remained in England, demoted to private and doing clerical work, until 26th of May 1945. While on these duties Smith married for the third time to an English woman, and they had four children.
Smith getting his medal.
After the war Smith worked for the Department of the Treasury and died in May 1984 in Florida.

Image credits:
www.combinedops.com and thisdayinaviation.com

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Vietnam Stuka's

On 13th of April 1972 the darkness of the early morning was lit up by the flashes of a huge number of artillery pieces. For the next 15 hours they fired at their target. The focus of this concentration of fire power was the city of An Loc in Vietnam, and shells would be landing at a rate of one every eight seconds for the rest of the day. This barrage helped to sap the ARVN defender’s morale even further. Whilst the city had been bolstered by forces, these were the survivors of further positions that had been over run in the preceding eight days by a brand new communist offensive. The offensive had been launched out of Cambodia and after two days of bitter fighting had crushed the Quần Lợi Base Camp. As it fell one of the US advisors was last heard of calling down air strikes on his own position.
The following days involved the surrounding of two smaller bases, and their eventual defeat. A portion of the soldiers involved had managed to break out and retreat to An Loc, without any heavy equipment.  A small force of ARVN and US advisers from these positions were surrounded and nearly annihilated. Eventually two OH-6’s managed to land and carry the entire platoon to safety. In the lead OH-6, six of the twelve people lifted out were carried out clinging to the landing skids.
An Loc itself.
The communists surrounded An Loc with some 35,000 men, along with a vast array of artillery and anti-aircraft weapons. But these were not all the communist forces had, they also had some forty T-54 tanks. To support their attack they launched these at the beleaguered ARVN forces. This was the first time the ARVN soldiers would face armour.
Unsurprisingly this debut caused an outbreak of tank terror, and the ARVN lines began to break. Things looked bleak as the tanks rolled steadily down the main roads, one column of which was heading directly for the defending division's HQ.

At this point two things happened.
Firstly, a private named Binh Doan Quang stood up in his foxhole, and levelled his M72 LAW, which weighed only 5.5lbs, against the gigantic thundering behemoth heading right towards him, and pressed the button. The rocket streaked out and slammed into the tank, destroying it. The rest of the ARVN soldiers in his position saw this and realised that they had the answer to the tanks. The ARVN's efforts were helped by the Soviet trained NVA tankers. Due to the unique way the forces were deployed the tanks were part of the NVA force, while the majority of the infantry were part of a Vietcong division. This meant there was little coordination between the two. In addition, the NVA tankers would often just drive at a steady pace down roads instead of using their mobility to go cross country. Equally this steady pace would leave what little infantry support they had behind. The story of tanks in a bombed-out city with no infantry support is one we all know the results of.

At the ARVN HQ about to be overrun by tanks a US advisor, Colonel Miller, grabbed his radio, on a US band, and said "Send me some Stuka's!". Somewhat to his shock he got a reply.
Serpent Six identified himself as being overhead, with two Cobra gunships. These are not the twin engine tow laden gunships armed with a 20mm cannon we know today, but much more primitive machines. They were armed with a rifle calibre mini-gun and rockets, which were normally fitted with HE warheads. However, these rockets had been fitted with the brand new HEAT warhead.
Overhead in Serpent Six, a Major by the name of Larry McKay, was positioning himself for an attack run. Col Miller tried to wave him off as the air around An Loc was covered by hundreds of AA weapons. Nevertheless, Maj McKay positioned himself above the town. Just before he was about to start his attack he saw a rising column of smoke as a heat seeking missile streaked towards him. He threw the AH-1 into a tight ninety degree turn and managed to get the missile to go after the hot gas that was his exhaust trail, not his helicopter. Banking back, Maj McKay put his Cobra into a steep dive directly towards the column of tanks. He chose such a risky approach for added accuracy against the targets, which were in friendly lines. On his first pass he knocked out three tanks in the attacking column, one at both the front and rear of the line, and one in the middle. The two Cobra's then set about the T-55's, being credited with destroying some twenty vehicles. By now US air power was responding and the number of planes stacked up above the battlefield was so many that the air space was becoming dangerously overcrowded.

One by one the aircraft rolled in, some making attack runs at only 20m separation from friendly forces. This firepower, along with the rallied ARVN soldiers knocking out tanks forced the battle to move into a prolonged siege.
Resupply of An Loc became more and more difficult due to the huge amount of AA firepower deployed. On April the 14th three USAF C-130's tried to make a resupply drop to the city. The first plane managed to get in and out having dropped its load. A second plane approached and was met with a hail of AA fire. The flak killed one man and wounded two others, as well as setting a fire in the cargo bay. The fire was located on the 27,000 pounds of ammunition which burned fiercely. The load-master fought past the flames and dumped the cargo. Two of the pallets exploded seconds after leaving the plane, causing severe burns to his face, neck and hands.
On their way back to base it was found that the landing gear would not lower. The load-master with the burnt hand furiously hand cranked the landing gear down, and the pilot managed to bring the C-130 in on just one engine. For their actions both the pilot, Colonel William R. Caldwell, and the load-master, Staff Sergeant Charles Shaub received the Air Force Cross.

The battle of An Loc would grind on until the 20th of July, when the communist forces withdrew unable to break the defenders.

Image Credits:
www.history-of-american-wars.com and vnafmamn.com (be warned the last site seems to hold a lot of errors.)

Sunday, March 4, 2018

Violet hedgehog

On January 14th 1944 convoy OS.65/KMS.39 departed from Liverpool. It consisted of about fifty ships in total, although several of the ships (including the escort carrier HMS Fencer) scheduled to be part of the convoy did not join. The convoy was made up of two parts, the OS part would head for Freetown Sierra Leone and the KMS part for Gibraltar. Their initial progress would be together as they had to pass the German U-boat pens on the west cost of France. This would mean passing right through the U-boats backyard. On the 17h of January the convoy was spotted by a HE-177, and the warning flashed to the U-boats. Only one U-boat was in position to intercept the convoy, this was U-641.
On the 11th of December 1943, U-641 had departed St Nazaire for its fifth war patrol since entering service. So far the U-boat and its captain Horst Rendtel had not had any success in killing Allied shipping, they had been involved in three fights with aircraft however, and had damaged an Avenger flown off the USS Bouge in June 1943. Now they maneuvered towards the convoy reported by the HE-177.
In the outer ring of escorts steamed HMS Violet, a Flower class corvette. The Flower classes were tiny ships, with puny armament and low speed. They were considered horrible postings as they tended to get swamped in the open ocean and were permanently cold and damp. What they were was cheap, and able to carry anti-submarine weapons. Normally they would be expected to keep a submarine busy until the convoy had passed and then attempt to rejoin. When armed with just depth charges this was often all they could do. Even with ADISC, in the final moments of an attack the contact would be lost, and the final aiming of the depth charges would have to be done by guesswork. HMS Violet's previous kill had been in conjunction with two destroyers, another corvette and a minesweeper. It had taken all five ships to kill the submarine U-651 in June 1941. Indeed, its suggested the ratio of depth charges used to submarines killed could be as high as 60:1.

However, HMS Violet was on her first cruise after a refit, where she had been fitted with a Hedgehog mortar. This was a multi-barreled spigot mortar (possibly developed from the Blacker Bombard.. I'm currently researching if that is the case, I'll let you know), which threw the projectile ahead of the ship. This allowed the ship to keep track of its target on ADISC while making its attack run. In addition, the hedgehog projectiles would only detonate when they touched the hull of the submarine, meaning an almost guaranteed kill. The ratio for Hedgehogs was close to 6:1.
HMS Violet
On the evening of the 19th of January 1944 HMS Violet would face off against U-641. There are several accounts of the battle on the web, some indicate that U-641 was spotted on the surface by radar, and that initially HMS Violet fired her guns at the submarine, causing the submarine to dive. However, HMS Violet’s captain, Lieutenant-Commander Charles Napier Stewart, filed a report on the subject. It seems to indicate that this version of events is wrong.

At 1901, while in position CC, a doubtful echo was heard on ADISC that might have been a submarine. The range was given as 1900 yards. C. B. Peakson was trained to stand ADISC watches, however he was not fully qualified, hence the doubtful nature of the report. The order was given for HMS Violet to reduce speed to 5 knots, and she began to close. Meanwhile a fully trained crewman was brought to the ADISC controls. By 1902 the echo was confirmed as a submarine and it was now at 1800 yards. When the range had dropped to 1300 yards the submarine started to turn away and was making a speed of about 2kn. Slowly HMS Violet closed the distance, and at 1912 speed was increased to 8kn, and steering given over to ADISC control, and Violet started her first attack run.

At 1917 and 45 seconds, at a range of 220 yards the Hedgehog was fired, lobbing the ungainly projectiles into the air, to splash down into the water ahead of the corvette. Some sixteen seconds later two explosions were heard, followed two seconds later by another one.
A US Ship fires a double Hedgehog. From the splashes it looks like U-641 might have been on the edge of the pattern, to be unfortunate enough to be hit by three charges.
During the last few seconds of the attack the ADISC contact was degrading from the submarine’s wake, and as HMS Violet passed over the attack point she lost contact, and a calcium flare was dropped overboard to mark the position. The contact was regained at 1921, although the contact was described as 'woolly' due to the disturbance in the water from the explosions. By 1928 HMS Violet had reached 1500 yards distance and turned for another attack run. As contact had been lost, the ships plotting room had maintained the location of the last position of U-641. As the corvette approached at 1935 an oil patch was sighted in the location near the flare. It was decided not to make a second attack, although Lt-Cmdr Stewart admits later this was a mistake.

As HMS Violet passed over the attack site a huge explosion was heard by all on deck, the engine room and on ADISC. The engine room also reported noises caused by breaking up, however this was not confirmed by the ADISC operator as it was now blinded by the wake. On the third pass the oil slick now measured about 277m by 185m, and there was a strong smell of oil. A sample was taken by dragging a canvas sack through the slick, but steps were not taken to preserve the sample and it was likely degraded by the time it reached shore.
HMS Rosebay
HMS Violet then linked up with HMS Rosebay and they began a box search of the area, some six hours later at 0152 there was a mix up in signals and the search was ended prematurely. Not that it mattered in this case, U-641 had been lost with all hands.

Image Credits:

Sunday, February 25, 2018

A Veritable Victory

As 1945 opened the Allies had stabilized the setbacks caused by the Battle of the Bulge. Equally their supply woes had been somewhat improved by the opening of Antwerp. Now they had only the Siegfried Line to breach and they could push into Germany. The British and Commonwealth forces decided to do this around the Reichswald forest. The attacks for this would be launched at the start of February and were known as operation Veritable.
To start proceedings a huge array of guns was to be laid on. As well as over a thousand regular artillery pieces, 80x 4.2" mortars, 114x 40mm Bofors guns, a regiment of Sherman's and 24x 17-pounder antitank guns were to be used to batter the German positions. In addition, the Commonwealth had the use of their newest weapon, the Land Mattress. These were a British 3" rocket, with a 29 lb warhead taken off a Hedgehog anti-submarine launcher strapped to it. Detonation was done by a fuse the British Army had deemed unsafe, but the Canadians considered adequate. The Land Mattress came in two forms, all were scratch built prototypes, ten of one variant, two of another. These launchers could land a huge volume of fire in a very short time. In an earlier battle a single troop of launchers landed 128 rockets in just 20 seconds on a target.

But there was still more metal raining from the sky. The British during The Second World War had a habit of using their Vickers heavy machine guns to fire indirectly, as I have mentioned before a Vickers gun with sufficient supply of ammunition and water could fire for extraordinary periods of time. This rain of small arms ammunition would also suppress the Germans.

To cap it off the two main towns in the area, Goch and Cleve, were to be visited by the bombers of the RAF and USAAF. This bombardment started at 0500 on the 8th of February.
9RTR in the Reichswald forest
The plan of attack called for this bombardment to last for about five hours. Then heavy tank forces would be sent in supported by infantry. Most of the tanks were Churchill's, with the 6th Guards heading towards Cleve, and the 9th RTR covering the other side of the Reichswald. The ground was frozen hard in the run up to the operation, which would give the tanks maximum room to manoeuvre. In addition, an absolutely huge smoke screen was to be laid and maintained to protect the lines of advance from being observable by German outposts on tall factory chimneys nearby.
Archer trying to advance in the flooded areas.
As the attack started mid-morning on the 8th a light rain began to fall, it would continue for the next five days. As well as the rain the temperature rose, and the ground thawed out. To make matters worse the Germans had blown dams and levees on the rivers flooding the entire area. Soon the ground was nothing but a waterlogged swamp. It got so bad that DUKW's had to be used to keep the Churchill tanks of the 6th Guards resupplied.
The rain caused some minor problems for the Germans as well. One unit, the 655 Schwere PanzerJäger Abteilung had ended 1944 in Prussia, then had been shifted over to the Western front via Berlin and Hanover to Paderborn. Shortly afterwards they were moved to Speyer, where they had painted their tanks white in readiness for the fighting. However, they were then moved north to defend the area around the Riechswald, as they arrived they realised their camouflage needed to be washed off.

They arrived in the area with two companies on the morning of the 9th of Feb. The two companies were 2nd Company, which had thirteen Jagdpanthers in four platoons of three and a command tank. The 3rd Company was equipped with Stug IV's.
One of the first actions happened early in the afternoon on the 9th. The infantry of the 2nd Monmouthshire Regiment were in an exposed position, on a track running north east on the edge of the Riechswald. When two of the Stug IV's opened fire this threatened heavy casualties.

Luckily for the infantry a platoon of Canadian M-10C's were nearby. These belonged to D Troop of the 56th Self Propelled Anti-tank battery. They were commanded by Lieutenant Charles Hewson-Captain Kydd, aged just 33. Lt Kydd had been born in Oregon before moving to Nova Scotia as a child. From there he had joined a bank, before joining the Canadian Army in 1941. Lt Kydd's M-10C was sitting in the middle of the track. Without seeking to find cover he immediately returned fire on the two Stugs, quickly destroying both whilst staying out in the open.

The following day D Troop’s M-10C's and the 2nd Monmouthshire's continued to advance, they encountered stiff resistance from German paratroopers armed with Panzerfausts and Panzerschrecks. One of D Troop’s M-10C's was hit four times, another only once. But incredibly both tanks remained in action throughout the day.
Late in the afternoon the advancing 2nd Monmouthshire’s came under long range high velocity gun fire, the rounds were coming from a place called Dammershof, some reports say a farm near the village. They halted on the reverse of a crest. We now know it was one of 655th's Jagdpanthers, but at the time it was reported as a Jagdtiger. Again, D Troop was in support of the 2nd Monmouthshire. First Lt Kydd moved his troop to a concealed position to ensure they were protected. Then he set out on foot alone to hunt the Jagdpanther. Moving across the boggy terrain, with constant mortar bursts nearby and small arms fire whipping past, Lt Kydd found the Jagdpanther.

He returned to his troop, again exposed to enemy fire the entire way. He selected one of his undamaged M-10C's and took it forward. Pressing on alone and unsupported into no-man’s land over incredibly boggy ground Lt Kydd managed to get the M-10c onto the flank of the Jagdpanther at a range of just 400 yards. He opened fire and after four shots disabled the tank by knocking off its tracks. However, the Jagdpanther was still able to fire, and it was already covering the main Commonwealth force. Lt Kydd moved his tank back towards his front line and began to shell the Jagdpanther with HE. After several rounds the periscopes and gun sight were smashed and the crew blinded. The Germans bailed and hid in a near-by barn. With this monster removed from the battle the British infantry were able to advance and capture the German tank crew.
Thought to be Kydds Jagdpanther
There is one more thing to mention for this account. There was a nearby incident where a 9th RTR Churchill knocked out a Jagdpanther. The crews from that incident are reported as hiding in a barn until captured. There are two possibilities, first the 9th RTR kill is the same tank destroyer that Lt Kydd engaged, and they fired the HE into the front of the Jagdpanther. Or that the combats were separate, but the fate of the crew was attributed to both combats.
The back end of the above Jagdpanther
Lt Kydd was awarded a Military Cross at some point in his career, but the exact details of when are hard to find. He survived the war, and was demobbed on 2nd of February 1946, where upon he returned to work in the bank.

Image credits:

Sunday, February 18, 2018

A Prickly Problem

In 1941 three ships were launched which would touch upon each other. These were U-380, launched on 5th of November and U-603 on 30th October. The ship that links them is HMS Porcupine, whom was launched on 10th of June.
HMS Oribi, a sister ship to HMS Porcupine
HMS Porcupine was a P class destroyer, after commissioning in August she took part in the Torch landings, acting as an escort to the surface group that provided cover against enemy surface attacks during the landings. On the 11th of November at 1242 U-380 fired a spread of four torpedoes at the troop ship Nieuw Zeeland, returning from the Torch landings. One of the torpedoes slammed into the ship, crippling her. At 1308 the captain of U-380, Josef Röther fired another torpedo to secure the kill. Fourteen men died, the other 256 abandoned ship in just twelve lifeboats. HMS Porcupine was one of the three ships that responded to the distress call. She picked up six of the lifeboats, a further five were saved by HMS Albrighton, a Hunt class destroyer. The final boat was picked up by the Dutch destroyer HNMS Isaac Sweers.
Nieuw Zeeland sinking
 Of U-380 there was no sign, she was to continue to serve throughout the war until 11 March 1944 when she was struck by bombs whilst in harbour from a USAAF air raid at Toulon. Josef Röther survived the war dying in February 1988, aged 80.
Josef Röther
 HMS Porcupine had one more battle to fight. In December she was formed into a convoy with HMS Antelope, Vanoc, Boreas and the Polish destroyer Błyskawica. Together they were to escort the SS Ontario, Tegelbug and depot ship Maidstone, these ships were destined for Oran. En-route U-602 fired a spread of three torpedoes at the convoy, aimed at the Maidstone. None of the escorts saw the torpedoes, and there had been no ADISC contacts to warn of the submarines presence. Only one of these torpedoes hit, and that was on HMS Porcupine. This hit on the port side in the engine room. The detonation ripped the floor out, and caused her port engine to drop out the bottom of the boat. With this massive weight gone she began to list to starboard, a list that was slowly increasing. Her rear decks were under water after a few hours, as the flooding caused the list to worsen.

Non-critical crew were offloaded to HMS Vanoc, while the frigate HMS Exe took her under tow. Furious efforts to save the ship included trying to seal off the flooding and jettisoning any weight in the upper super structure. She was ordered to head not for Oran, in fact she was forbidden to head for that port as it was too far away. But instead she was sent to the tiny port of Arzew, which was the closest berth possible, and if need be she could be beached there. Throughout the night the crews sat and waited as they made painfully slow progress, expecting a torpedo at any time. The next morning the hulk was still afloat and the tow was transferred to a French tug. After two days at sea HMS Porcupine made it to shore.
Stern half of HMS Porcupine being towed to the UK
 For the next three months she was prepared for towing to Oran, and in March she set sail arriving on the 28th of March 1943. She was then cut in half with both parts being towed in separate convoys to Gibraltar, and then onto the UK. When she arrived in the UK the two halves were used as accommodation ships, and on the 14th of January 1944 became part of the landing craft base at stokes bay. Even accommodation ships need names and the two halves were recommissioned as HMS Pork and HMS Pine. These two ships served until August 1946 when the two halves were decommissioned, sold off and broken up for scrap in 1947.
HMS Pork in the UK

During the torpedo attack seven of HMS Porcupines crew were killed. Of the U-602 and her captain Philipp Schüler, they went missing in 19 Apr 1943, and no one knows their fate.
Philipp Schüler

Image credits:

Sunday, February 11, 2018

IS-3's missile Opponents

Recently I've been doing a lot of research on early British anti-tank missiles, namely the Malkara, Orange William and Swingfire. However, I won't be going into detail on those, as they're destined for a book. I figured however I could talk about the era and anti-tank missiles. In the early 60's the British were looking at what to do next in regard to ATGM's. This discussion leads directly to the Swingfire.
Quick, Kill it with a missile!
At the time the big scary monster that was used as a target for all British anti-tank projects was the IS-3. It was the IS-3 that drove development of the 183mm guns the British looked at. Now it was time for the IS-3 to face the ATGM. But first what are we dealing with?
Well luckily, I have an assessment conducted in 1966 about HEAT warhead lethality against an IS-3. The method of damage was assessed from a HEAT warhead. The after armour effects (no matter what War Thunder would tell you) was described as the line of penetrating jet, and a 45 degree cone of spall. If this behind armour effect hit the ammunition it was deemed to have killed the tank. Which included ammunition stored on the back wall of the fighting compartment. However, the damage model did include all the components and crew which would absorb the spall and other behind armour effects. Needless to say, its lots of complicated maths with funny symbols that aren't numbers. Luckily the maths produce an understandable simple final number to kill a tank. These results are based upon the diameter of the HEAT warhead.
Probability of impacting a set thickness of armour on an IS-3
After about six inches the probability starts to drop, despite large increments. This means that a 5.5 to 6 inch warhead is about the optimum calibre. Which explains why so many missiles are about that calibre these days.
Approximate numbers, the line graph was at an angle...
However back then you had a lot of ATGM's being produced by a lot of countries, and the British considered each one to fulfil their requirements. General Staff Operational Requirement 1013 asked for a maximum range of 4200 yards, with a minimum range of 320 yards. There was a rate of fire that needed to be met, and so assuming maximum range the missile had to travel over, that distance at a speed of 550fps, so that the controller had time to fire the rest of the missiles and guide them onto target. Equally to meet the requirements the missile needed at least a 17lbs HEAT warhead with 10lbs of explosive. This was to ensure sufficient penetration and damage inside the tank, as it would be no good to have a weapon that can get through the armour but only provide extra ventilation to the crew.
Irritatingly for our purposes the GSOR expresses its need in lbs, while the other, much later document expresses in calibre. I suspect this is down to a maturing of the knowledge regarding how to achieve the best effects. But in this case, I suspect that the numbers would at least be close. However, there are a lot of factors involved here so this might be a bit of a simplistic explanation.

The issue the British had was none of the other missiles fit their needs. The missiles that came under review were these ones:
The Penetration value are rough numbers, and not included in the original document but come form other sources and so might be suspect.
Most of the missiles were too small in warhead size and lacked the range. Some had rather large minimum ranges as well. One oddity when looking at these missiles is that nearly all of them looked visually similar, a simple tube (ENTAC was a tear drop shape) with four very large fins at the base.


Borfors ANti-TAnk Missile (BANTAM)
As it stood none of the existing weapons would fit the bill, so the British moved ahead with the Swingfire development. This fell into two parts, a medium range version for infantry use and a long-range version for vehicle use. The main difference was the weight of the complete missile, the medium range version was to be able to be carried by a single man. However, that project failed and eventually the British brought the Milan to fulfil their infantry needs.

Sunday, February 4, 2018

Russia vs France

In September 1944 the Russians finally managed to partially achieve one of their aims, they knocked Finland out of the war. The peace settlement called for the Finns to demobilise their troops and to evict the Germans at the same time. For most of September the two forces worked together with the Germans falling back, and the Finns advancing behind them at the same pace. There had been a few minor battles, but no major conflict. All this changed towards the end of the month. The Allies began to put pressure on the Finns. If they failed to get to grips with the Germans the Russians would lend military aid, in the form of Russian troops on Finnish territory. I'm sure you can see how unacceptable that would have been to the Finns. Thus, the Finns began to prepare for an actual move against the Germans. The dead line for the fighting to start was given as 0800 on the 1st of October.
Finnish Troops loading onto their transports.
The plan called for three transport ships to land a force of Finnish infantry at Tornio on the Finnish-Swedish border and get around behind the retreating Germans, cutting them off. To help with this the Finns re-mobilised a handful of T-26's, a tank they had declared obsolete in July. The T-26's had one advantage, they were small and light, and so would be easier to transport. The force of Finnish troops arrived in Tornio at 0750 on the 1st of October. At the time a local Civil Guard had organised a uprising against the Germans and fighting was going on throughout the area. The Finns arrived and started to spread out. One regiment was embarked upon a train that had been sent to meet them by the Civil Guard and this enabled it to move with speed to capture the station.

Despite this initial success the situation was very confused, and the Finns were expecting a much larger force of Germans to launch their counter attacks. Indeed, the Germans were concentrating forces, however these would not be in position for a day or so. To add to the problems the Finnish troops were not the crack disciplined force that had fought the Soviets to a standstill twice. When the Finnish soldiers captured a stockpile of German alcohol at a supply dump several of the infantry units involved became drunk. Finally, the Germans were sending forward envoys to try and negotiate a return to the previous way of fighting.
All these factors added up and the Finnish force became pinned in place, while the Germans massed about them. The Germans had artillery and air superiority, with the port taking damage from the direct fire of a German 88mm battery, and being attacked by Fw200 Condor bombers. They could also call upon the striking power of a flight of Stuka's.
German S-35 with Zimmerite
The Germans also had armour. Panzer Abteilung 211had been fighting in Finland from the start of the Continuation War and had taken part in the invasion of the Soviet Union. As a minor unit the tanks it was equipped with were old French captured tanks, mostly Hotchkiss H39's and Somua S35's. The latter were used as command tanks. In 1943 Pa. Abt. 211 was reorganised and supplied with about six Panzer III Ausf N. In September 1944 the battalion had taken a beating against the Russians, losing some eleven tanks. With the battle of Tornio brewing the 2nd Company was dispatched to assist in the fighting.

On the Third of October the German counter attack was launched. Initially the fighting was stalemated, and several German tanks were knocked out by Panzershrecks used by the Finns. Both sides attempted to launch flanking attacks with a battalion of infantry, however both battalions ran headlong into each other. Meanwhile in the main battle the German superiority in firepower was beginning to tell, and they began to push the Finns back. Eventually the Finns halted the German attack. During the days fighting two German tanks had been knocked out by PSK-40 75mm anti-tank guns, a pair of S-35's had fallen afoul of some Finnish anti-tank mines and one tank had to be scuttled after it got stuck in a ditch.
The two S-35's knocked out by AT mines.
The heavy fighting had slowed the Germans and eventually halted them. The Germans prepared for another series of attacks, however the Finns were also bringing in reinforcements, including the T-26's. At about 1500, on the 5th of October 1944 Finland fought its last tank battle. Oddly it was between two contemporary opponents, A Finnish T-26 and a German H38. 

There was a brief exchange of fire, two shots from both sides, with each tank firing after the other side. The German fired first, but missed, as did his next shot. The first Finnish shot hit but bounced off the armour of the H38. The last shot from the Finn set the H38 on fire.
The H38 knocked out by the T-26
 The following day the Germans launched another round of attacks, however by now there were some ten regiments of Finnish troops holding the ground and the attacks failed. By now the Germans had begun to abandon the area and by using a road around the area they were able to withdraw. The Finns were not able to get into position to block the German retreat to Norway.

Thanks to Manxboz of the Tanks Encyclopedia team who tipped me off to this story.

Sunday, January 28, 2018

U No Go

On the 8th of March 1944 the Japanese forces in Burma launched operation U-Go. Their aim was to smash through the Allied lines and claim a stunning victory over the Allies, and hopefully to reverse their fortunes in the war. However, by now the Allied forces had worked out how to defeat the Japanese, and a bitter five month battle followed. The Japanese' initial thrust towards Imphal wound along the valley floor, by mid April the Japanese had fought their way to the town of Ningthoukhong. There a bitter grinding fight ensued, and the town gained the distinction of the most bombarded place in India. The presence of the road leading along the valley also allowed the Japanese to bring forward their tanks. From the Japanese arrival to the start of June the Allies tried repeatedly to shove the Japanese out of their half of the town. At the start of June, the Japanese began to build up for a major assault.
On the night of the 6th of June, the Japanese moved a fresh battalion forward. Their plan was to hook around the side of the Allied position and hit the defenders in the flank. The attack would link up with an armoured thrust from the main Japanese lines.
Well aware of the Japanese penchant for infiltrating a position the Allies had established a blocking force on the flank. This blocking party consisted of a platoon of the 1st Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regiment. The initial attack fell on them just after midnight, and almost destroyed the platoon in the opening salvo. A barrage of point blank small arms fire and hand grenades killed or destroyed all but one of the platoon's Bren guns. Stunned the survivors were about to break when a lone Sergeant stepped forward. His name was Hanson Victor Turner.
Sgt Turner
Sgt Turner had been born in April 1910 in Halifax, later they moved to Copley. There when old enough Sgt Turner had worked as a bus conductor. He had joined up in 1940 and had been sent to India in 1943. Rallying the platoon and realising that they were unable to hold their current position in the face of a battalion strong attack, Sgt Turner ordered his platoon to fall back about 40 yards, opening up a killing ground. The Japanese were unable to close up, and so began to try to infiltrate around the flank of the platoon. Sgt Turner upon seeing this grabbed a bag of hand grenades and advanced on the Japanese flanking force alone. After bombing the Japanese to a standstill Sgt Turner returned to his lines to collect more grenades, and once again advanced, alone, into the night time. In total he returned for more grenades six times. On his sixth counter attack he was hit and killed. Almost single-handed Sgt Turner’s repeated counter attacks halted the Japanese. For his actions he was awarded a Victoria Cross.

The Japanese tried again on the 12th of June. This time a frontal assault with infantry and armour, under the cover of a precise, well aimed and effective mortar bombardment. Six Japanese tanks roared down the road towards a paddy held by the 7th Gurkha Rifles. The tanks rolled up to the front line and then turned along it blasting the bunkers there at point blank range, along with the following infantry they forced the Ghurkha's back about 200 yards. The next line had a 2-pounder gun, when the Japanese tanks approached the gun opened fire. Its first shot disabled the gun on the leading tank. Its next shot destroyed the second tank. Two more tanks attempting to avoid the gun bogged in the paddy field and a fifth that had sneaked up the road rushed the gun ramming it and destroying it. Shortly afterwards this tank bogged down as well but was put out of action by a PIAT.
B Company was ordered to mount a counter attack and drive the Japanese back. They still had several tanks bogged down in their lines, whose armament still worked. When the Ghurkhas launched their counter attack they met a barrage of machine gun fire, which held them back. The tanks were acting as machine-gun bunkers and immune to the weapons that could be brought to bear on them. Then a soldier named Gyamtso Shangderpa stepped forward, he was armed with a PIAT.
Gyamtso Shangderpa
Gyamtso Shangderpa had been born in Sangmo, which is in Sikkim, not Nepal. However, during the war non-Nepalese were allowed to join the Gurkhas, and Gyamtso was just one of these recruits.

He crawled forwards, the Japanese saw him crawling through the rice and filthy muddy water, and so began to fire on him. He was hit and wounded three times, once in the leg, once in the arm. He also suffered a broken left wrist. Despite this he pressed forwards, leaving a trail of blood behind him. At a range of just 30 yards he opened fire with his PIAT, destroying the first tank. He then reloaded, while under concentrated point-blank fire, and destroyed a second tank. The third tank was knocked out by an anti-tank gun. Japanese standing orders required that crews stay with their vehicles, or if this was impossible to dismount their machine guns. Knowing this Gyamtso grabbed his grenades, and with just one arm working, went after the Japanese tank crews killing or wounding all of them. The removal of the Japanese machine guns allowed the rest of the company to push forward and retake their position. Only then did Gyamtso allow himself to be evacuated.
Two of the tanks knocked out by Gyamtso
Gyamtso was also awarded a Victoria Cross, although it was under another name. When he joined up the clerk who took his details wrote down his name as Ganju Lama. He died in July 2000.

Image credits:
www.nam.ac.uk and www.findagrave.com

Sunday, January 21, 2018

On Both Sides

Joseph Beyrle was born on the 25th of August 1923 to a second generation immigrant family in Muskegon, Michigan. His grandparents were originally from Germany, and so Beyrle learned German as a second language. Beyrle's childhood was not an easy one, as the great depression hit his family hard, causing them to lose their house. Despite this Beyrle graduated from school and immediately joined the US Army. Beyrle volunteered for parachute training, whereupon he was posted to 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment.
Beyrle arrived in the UK in September 1943 as part of the build-up in preparation for D-Day. However, he was to reach France earlier than that. Twice in 1944 he was selected to drop into France as part of covert supplies of gold coins to the resistance. After being sheltered for a couple of days in France he would be returned. After his last mission he returned to his unit just in time for the isolation that all soldiers were put into in the run up to D-Day.
On D-Day itself Beyrle was part of the miss-drop, and he hit the roof of the church at Saint-Côme-du-Mont. Here he had his first near miss, as there was a German soldier in the tower of the church, who started shooting at him at a range of only a few meters. Beyrle made it to the ground in one piece and set off towards the objective, a pair of bridges nearby. As he was leaving he used his demolition training to blow up a power-substation for the village. Whilst he was heading for his objective Beyrle's luck ran out, when he stumbled into a German machine gun nest, and was promptly captured.

As a POW Beyrle and a large number of other captured US paras were sent in a column towards Carentan. On the way they were struck by friendly artillery and Beyrle took a wound to his posterior. After providing first aid he used the chaos to escape from captivity, however after just a few hours he was recaptured. This time the captives were dispatched to St. Lo by train. On the way the Allied air forces attacked the train but caused no damage. Beyrle arrived at St. Lo just in time for a large US air raid to hammer the town flat, again the Allied aircraft managed to miss the POW's. The same could not be said some weeks later when put on a train for Germany. Again, the Allied air forces attacked the train, this time causing several casualties amongst the POW's.
Once reaching Germany the POW's were moved further east into Poland, arriving at Stalag III-C. After several weeks Beyrle worked out a plan for escape. He, along with another POW, would bribe a guard with cigarettes to allow them to cut the wire fence whilst he was on duty. Then they would conduct the escape after the guards had changed. The POW's carried out this plan and managed to jump on a train nearby which they had been told was heading east. The next morning they peeked out from their hiding place and found themselves in Berlin. Not knowing what to do the POW's hid all day in the train. Then that night the RAF launched a bombing raid. Realising they were in danger they set off to find some cover, and ran into an elderly German. Eventually the German agreed to help, and gave them a secure place to hide and some food. The next evening, he returned and transported them to a German underground safe house.

The following morning the safe house was stormed by the Gestapo, and Beyrle and the other POW were captured. The Gestapo thought he was an American spy and began to torture him for several days until the German armed forces asserted their jurisdiction over him as a POW.

At Stalag III-C the hospital for prisoners was outside the wire to the compound. This allowed Beyrle and three others to conduct a plan for escape. During the exercise period one of them would fake a heart attack, the other two would arrive with a stretcher. Then as they went past the gate to take the injured POW to the hospital a fight would break out distracting the guards. The plan worked perfectly and the three POW's hid themselves inside barrels on a supply wagon and waited.

As the wagon was leaving it took a sharp turn too hard and spilled the barrels from its bed, and the three POW's were spotted. As they were some distance away from the camp the POW's began to run for it. The Germans opened fire, hitting Beyrle's two comrades. Beyrle managed to throw off his pursers, and headed east to find the Russian forces.
For several days he moved towards the sounds of the fighting, eventually just behind the front line he hid in a hayloft and waited. After a while he could hear Russian voices and the sounds of tanks. Beyrle very carefully made contact with the Russians, who were of course suspicious of his story. However, after a long discussion Beyrle was issued a PPSH-41, and assigned as a hull gunner on one of the Soviet tanks. These were actually M4 Sherman's, so Beyrle knew how to operate and clean the machine guns. Beyrle's demolition training also came in useful, as it allowed him to blow up German roadblocks. This knowledge was very useful several days later when the tanks arrived at Stalag III-C. The Russians had been issued with US explosive, however, they had no idea of how to use it but Beyrle did. He used it to blow open a large safe in the commandant's office. Inside were stocks of valuables seized from the POW's, this included large sums of western currency, which Beyrle was allowed to keep, while the Russians took any Roubles or gold that was found.
Beyrle continued to fight with the Russians until early February 1945 when he was caught in a Stuka attack and badly wounded. Whilst at the hospital Marshal Zhukov conducted a visit, and was surprised to find an American there. He ordered Beyrle returned to the US embassy in Moscow, and thus to be returned home. When Beyrle arrived home he was surprised to find that he had been declared dead in 1944, as his dog tags had been found. Beyrle actaully died aged 81 in 2004.

Image credits: